## Reading

We will cover phonemic awareness, phonics, word work, vocabulary, and comprehension skills. We will use Raz Kids A-Zreading and Epic Books.

**60 Minutes –**Includes time to listen, share and practice**1st Grade –**Click to review objectives**2nd Grade –**Click to review objectives**Integration –**some science and social studies included

### 1st Grade Reading

- Read closely to determine what a text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from a text.
- Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
- Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
- Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
- Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text relate to each other and the whole.
- Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
- Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. [Note: Please see “Research to Build and Present Knowledge” in Writing and “Comprehension and Collaboration” in Speaking and Listening.]
- Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
- Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
- Independently and proficiently read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts.
- Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
- Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson.
- Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.
- Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses. (See grade 1 Language Standards 4-6 on applying knowledge of vocabulary to reading.)
- Identify characteristics of common types of stories, including folktales and fairy tales.
- Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text.
- Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.
- (Not applicable. For expectations regarding central messages or lessons in stories, See Reading Literature Standard 2.)
- Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.
- With prompting and support, read and comprehend literary texts representing a variety of genres, cultures, and perspectives and exhibiting complexity appropriate for at least grade 1. See more information on qualitative and quantitative dimensions of text complexity.
- Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
- Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
- Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
- Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text. (See grade 1 Language Standards 4-6 on applying knowledge of vocabulary to reading.)
- Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text.
- Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.
- Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas.
- Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
- Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).
- With prompting and support, read and comprehend informational texts exhibiting complexity appropriate for at least grade 1. (See more information on qualitative and quantitative dimensions of text complexity.)
- Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
- Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation).
- Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
- Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words .
- Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.
- Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
- Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).
- Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
- Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.
- Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
- Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.
- Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.
- Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.
- Read words with inflectional endings.
- Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
- Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
- Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
- Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
- Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

### 2nd Grade Reading

- Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
- Retell stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.
- Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.
- Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song. (See grade 2 Language Standards 4-6 on applying knowledge of vocabulary to reading.)
- Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.
- Explain what dialogue is and how it can reveal characters’ thoughts and perspectives.
- Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
- (Not applicable. For expectations regarding central messages or lessons in stories, See Reading Literature Standard 2.)
- Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures.
- Independently and proficiently read and comprehend literary texts representing a variety of genres, cultures, and perspectives and exhibiting complexity for at least grade 2. See information on qualitative and quantitative dimensions of text complexity.
- Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
- Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.
- Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, mathematical ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.
- Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area. (See grade 2 Language Standards 4-6 on applying knowledge of vocabulary to reading.)
- Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.
- Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.
- Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.
- Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.
- Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.
- Independently and proficiently read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, mathematical, and technical texts exhibiting complexity appropriate for at least grade 2. (See more information on qualitative and quantitative dimensions of text complexity.)
- Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
- Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
- Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams.
- Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels.
- Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.
- Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences.
- Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
- Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
- Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
- Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
- Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

## Writing

We will utilize The Six Traits of Writing as well as Empowering Writers and cover spelling, sentence structure, ideas, organization, word choice, and voice. We will cover opinion, expository/informative, research, narrative, and book analysis as well as poetry and story writing.

**60 Minutes –**Includes time to listen, share and practice**1st Grade –**Click to review objectives**2nd & 3rd Grade –**Click to review objectives**Integration –**Some science and social studies included

### 1st Grade Writing

- Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
- Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
- Write narratives to develop experiences or events using effective literary techniques, well-chosen details, and well-structured sequences.
- Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
- Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
- Use technology to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
- Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
- When conducting research, gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
- Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, interpretation, reflection, and research.
- Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
- Write opinion pieces that introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.
- Write informative/explanatory texts that name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.
- Write narratives in prose or poem form that recount two or more appropriately sequenced events or experiences, include some details about what happened or was experienced, use temporal words to signal order where appropriate, and provide some sense of c
- For poems, use rhyming words and words that repeat long and short vowel sounds to create structure (see Grade 1 Reading Foundational Skills Standard 2a).
- Produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Standards 1-3 above.)
- With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.
- Demonstrate the ability to choose and use appropriate vocabulary (as described in Language Standards 4-6 up to and including grade 1).
- With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers.
- Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions).
- With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
- Write routinely for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

### 2nd & 3rd Grade Writing

- Write opinion pieces on familiar topics or texts, supporting an opinion with reasons.
- Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.
- Provide reasons that support the opinion.
- Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.
- Provide a concluding statement or section.
- Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
- Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.
- Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details.
- Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.
- Provide a concluding statement or section.
- Write narratives in prose or poem form to develop experiences or events using effective literary techniques, descriptive details, and clear sequences.
- Establish a situation and introduce a speaker, narrator and/or characters; organize an appropriate narrative sequence.
- Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show responses to situations.
- Use figurative language to suggest images. (See grade 3 Reading Literature Standard 4.)
- Use temporal words and phrases to signal order where appropriate.
- Provide a sense of closure.
- For poems, use words and phrases that form patterns of sounds (e.g., rhyme, repetition of sounds within words or lines) to create meaning or effect.
- Produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)
- Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
- Demonstrate command of standard English conventions (as described in Language Standards 1-3 up to and including grade 3).
- Demonstrate the ability to choose and use appropriate vocabulary (as described in Language Standards 4-6 up to and including grade 3).
- Use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
- Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.
- Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.
- Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

## Math

We will be using Eureka Math which is a skills based story of mathematics that teaches students not only how to solve problems but it also allows for them to discover what process works for their individual learning style. It is a rigorous and challenging program that develops skills that connect to the real world. We will also be using both IXL as well as Khan Academy for math support and practice.

**60 Minutes –**Includes time to listen, share and practice**1st Grade –**Click to review objectives**2nd Grade –**Click to review objectives**3rd Grade –**Click to review objectives

### 1st Grade Math

- Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations (number sentences) with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. See Glossary, Table 1
- Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.
- Apply properties of operations to add. For example, when adding numbers order does not matter. If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known (Commutative property of addition). To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12 (Associative property of addition). When adding zero to a number, the result is the same number (Identity property of zero for addition). [Note: Students need not use formal terms for these properties]
- Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.
- Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).
- Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use mental strategies such as counting on; making 10 (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a 10 (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).
- “Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false.
- For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 – 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2.”
- “Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers.
- For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = ? – 3, 6 + 6 = ?”
- Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral.
- Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases:
- 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones—called a “ten.”
- The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
- The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones).
- Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.
- Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.
- Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used. Identify arithmetic patterns of 10 more and 10 less than using strategies based on place value.
- Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 from multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (positive or zero differences), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.
- Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object.
- Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps.
- Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks.
- Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.
- Identify the values of all U.S. coins and know their comparative values (e.g., a dime is of greater value than a nickel). Find equivalent values (e.g., a nickel is equivalent to five pennies). Use appropriate notation (e.g., 69¢). Use the values of coins in the solutions of problems (up to 100¢).
- Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes that possess defining attributes.
- Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape. [Note: Students do not need to learn formal names such as “right rectangular prism”]
- Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares.

### 2nd Grade Math

- Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. See Glossary, Table 1
- Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies. By end of grade 2, know from memory all sums of two single-digit numbers and related differences. For example, the sum 6 + 5 = 11 has related differences of 11 – 5 = 6 and 11 – 6 = 5. [Note: Strategies such as counting on; making tens; decomposing a number; using the relationship between addition and subtraction; and creating equivalent but easier or known sums]
- Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends.
- Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to five rows and up to five columns; write an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends.
- Understand that the three digits of a three-digit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; e.g., 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases:
- 100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens—called a “hundred.”
- The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones).
- Count within 1,000; skip-count by 5s, 10s, and 100s. Identify patterns in skip counting starting at any number.
- Read and write numbers to 1,000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form.
- Compare two three-digit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.
- Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.
- Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.
- Add and subtract within 1,000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method. Understand that in adding or subtracting three-digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds.
- Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100–900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number 100–900.
- Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations. [Note: Explanations may be supported by drawings or objects.]
- Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.
- Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen.
- Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters.
- Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit.
- Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.
- Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, …, and represent whole-number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram.
- Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m.
- Know the relationships of time, including seconds in a minute, minutes in an hour, hours in a day, days in a week; days in a month and a year and approximate number of weeks in a month and weeks in a year.
- “Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies (up to $10), using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately and whole dollar amounts.
- For example, if you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have? If you have $3 and 4 quarters, how many dollars or cents do you have? (Students are not expected to use decimal notation.)
- “
- Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Organize and record the data on a line plot (dot plot) where the horizontal scale is marked off in whole-number units.
- Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. See Glossary, Table 1
- Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces. Identify triangles, squares, rectangles, rhombuses, trapezoids, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes. [Note: Sizes are compared directly or visually, not compared by measuring]
- Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of same-size squares and count to find the total number of them.
- Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape.

### 3rd Grade Math

- Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 x 7 as the total number of objects in five groups of seven objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5 x 7.
- Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8.
- Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. See Glossary, Table 2
- “Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 x ? = 48, 5 = ? ÷ 3, 6 x 6 = ?.
- Apply properties of operations to multiply. For example: When multiplying numbers order does not matter. If 6 x 4 = 24 is known, then 4 x 6 = 24 is also known (Commutative property of multiplication); The product 3 x 5 x 2 can be found by 3 x 5 = 15 then 15 x 2 = 30, or by 5 x 2 = 10 then 3 x 10 = 30 (Associative property of multiplication); When multiplying two numbers either number can be decomposed and multiplied; one can find 8 x 7 by knowing that 7 = 5 + 2 and that 8 x 5 = 40 and 8 x 2 = 16, resulting in 8 x (5 + 2) = (8 x 5) + (8 x 2) = 40 + 16 = 56 (Distributive property); When a number is multiplied by 1 the result is the same number (Identity property of 1 for multiplication). [Note: Students need not use formal terms for these properties. Students are not expected to use distributive notation]
- Understand division as an unknown-factor problem. For example, find 32 ÷ 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8.
- Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 x 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of grade 3, know from memory all products of two single-digit numbers and related division facts. For example, the product 4 x 7 = 28 has related division facts 28 ÷ 7 = 4 and 28 ÷ 4 = 7.
- Solve two-step word problems using the four operations for problems posed with whole numbers and having whole number answers. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies, including rounding. [Note: Students should know how to perform operations in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations)]
- Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends.
- Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100. [Note: A range of algorithms may be used.]
- Fluently add and subtract within 1,000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. [Note: A range of algorithms may be used.]
- Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (e.g., 9 x 80, 5 x 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. [Note: A range of algorithms may be used.]
- Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole (a single unit) is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b.
- Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.
- Represent a unit fraction, 1/b, on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the fraction 1/b is located 1/b of a whole unit from 0 on the number line.
- Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off a lengths 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line.
- Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size. [Note: Grade 3 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8.]
- Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line.
- Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3. Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
- Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. For example, express 3 in the form 3 = 3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram.
- Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
- Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.
- Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard metric units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l). Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same metric units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem. [Note: Excludes compound units such as cm3 and finding the geometric volume of a container. Excludes multiplicative comparison problems (problems involving notions of “times as much”; Glossary, Table 2).]
- Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets.
- Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of objects using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Record and show the data by making a line plot (dot plot), where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units—whole numbers, halves, or fourths. (See Glossary for example.)
- Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement.
- A square with side length one unit, called “a unit square,” is said to have “one square unit” of area, and can be used to measure area.
- A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units.
- Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in., square ft., and non-standard units).
- Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.
- Find the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths.
- Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole-number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent whole-number products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning.
- Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths a and b + c is the sum of a x b and a x c. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning.
- Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into non-overlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real-world problems.
- Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters.
- Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Compare and classify shapes by their sides and angles (right angle/non-right angle). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, squares, and trapezoids as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories.
- Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole. For example, partition a shape into 4 parts with equal areas, and describe the area of each part as 1/4 of the area of the shape.

It was the summer of 2019 that we received the long awaited teacher assignments in the mail. I remember my son Joey’s excitement when he opened the letter and saw Mr. Bertsch’s name listed on the letter. We had heard many great things about Mr. Bertsch and his teaching style, but could not wait to see for ourselves!

Well, were we in for a treat! Mr. Bertsch exceeded all of our expectations and more. Not only did he teach our students the “basics” of 1 st grade, but he taught them about compassion, understanding, and talking things out with their peers. He taught these things in many forms, but the one way that has stuck with Joey is Mr. Bertsch’s love of music. He would incorporate music daily, with songs, poems, and just easy humming techniques. This was such a nice break from the “norm” and the kids truly enjoyed it and could not be more in tune to him.

Unfortunately our year with Mr. Bertsch was cut short due to the pandemic. We were devastated that we would no longer have in person learning with Mr. Bertsch, but to no avail he made remote learning just as exciting as in person! The learning, the singing, the games, the communication, it NEVER wavered just because we were behind a screen. It is very fitting that his new venture is called Kindness Ripples. If you don’t know the meaning of it yet, just wait, you are in for a special treat. Joey still spreads ripples daily and is always reminded of Mr. Bertsch when he does so. We are so grateful for the lifelong impact Mr. Bertsch has on Joey, its educators like him that don’t around too often.

**Jennifer K.**

## Materials Checklist

These links go to Amazon for your convenience. I have researched these items and have found that they are consistently up to the task for homeschooling and online learning.

Lined Notebooks 1 each for: math, writing, words, handwriting

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